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5th World Congress on PCOS and Reproductive Healthcare, will be organized around the theme “Exploring new insights and strategies in the Human Reproduction”

PCOS 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in PCOS 2019

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\r\n Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas that allows cells to use sugar. Excess insulin may also affect the ovaries by increasing androgen production, which may interfere with the ovaries' ability to ovulate.

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\r\n White blood cells (WBC) produce substances to fight infection as a part of a response mechanism called inflammation. Research has shown that women with PCOS have low-grade inflammation and this type of low-grade inflammation stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce androgens.

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\r\n Hormones are the chemical messengers in the body that travel through the bloodstream to the organs and tissues. They work slowly via feedback mechanisms with other glands and organs, affecting many of the body's processes over time. Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells, generate hormones. The infertility rates due to polycystic ovaries are very high. Women usually will have difficulty getting pregnant - and usually require treatment to improve chances of pregnancy. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases which accompanies high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Endometrial cancer is a cancer which arises from the endometrium. It is a result of the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. The first sign is most often vaginal bleeding not associated with menstrual periods. Other symptoms include pain with urination or sexual intercourse, or pelvic pain. Endometrial cancer occurs most commonly after menopause. Hyperandrogenism is one of the primary symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In such cases, it presents with symptoms such as acne and seborrhea, is frequent in adolescent girls and is often associated with irregular menstrual cycles.

Dyslipidaemia, diabetes, and obesity are all potent cardiovascular risk factors that tend to cluster in women with PCOS. However, it is not known whether the increased cardiovascular risks seen in PCOS are mediated through obesity and is independent of body mass index (BMI) and the result of other metabolic factors.

 is a disease in which tissue that normally grows inside the uterus grows outside the uterus. Its main symptoms are pelvic pain and infertility. Nearly half of the patients suffering from this encounters chronic pelvic pain, while in 70% of them pain occurs during menstruation. Pain during sex is also common. Infertility occurs in up to half of the people. Less common symptoms include urinary or bowel symptoms. About 25% of women have no symptoms. Endometriosis can have both social and psychological effects. Hormonal contraceptives birth control pills, patches and vaginal rings help control the hormones responsible for the buildup of endometrial tissue each month.  (Gn-RH) agonists and antagonists are drugs that block the production of ovarian-stimulating hormones, lowering oestrogen levels and preventing menstruation. Medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera) is an injectable drug which is effective in halting menstruation and the growth of endometrial implants, thereby relieving the signs and symptoms of endometriosis.

 

\r\n An ovarian cyst is any collection of fluid, surrounded by a very thin wall, within an ovary. Any ovarian follicle that is larger than about two centimetres is termed an ovarian cyst. Such cysts range in size from as small as a pea to larger than an orange. Ovarian cysts occur in women of all ages including neonatal period and even infancy. They are most prevalent during infancy, adolescence and during the childbearing years. With ultrasonography ovarian cysts can be demonstrated in nearly all premenopausal and approximately 18% postmenopausal women

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\r\n Polycystic ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disorder of uncertain cause. There is strong evidence that it is a genetic disease. Such evidences include the familial clustering of cases, greater concordance in monozygotic compared with dizygotic twins and heritability of endocrine and metabolic features of PCOS.

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\r\n Ovarian cancer warning signs include ongoing pain or cramps in the lower abdomen or back, abnormal vaginal bleeding, nausea, and bloating. Depending on the cancer stage, ovarian cancer treatment includes surgery and chemotherapy

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\r\n There are two types of Ovarian Cyst Surgery

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\r\n Laparoscopy

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\r\n Most cysts can be removed using laparoscopy. This is a type of keyhole surgery where small cuts are made on the abdominal surface and gas is blown into the pelvis to allow the surgeon to access your ovaries.

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\r\n Laparotomy

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\r\n During a laparotomy, a single, larger cut is made on the abdominal surface to give the surgeon a better access to the cyst. The whole cyst and ovary may be removed and sent to a laboratory to check whether it's cancerous or not. Stitches or staples are used to close the incision.

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\r\n Clomiphene therapy is typically used for five consecutive days early in the menstrual cycle, for three to six monthly cycles. It may take several cycles to find the right dose to stimulate ovulation. After that dose is determined, a woman will take the drug for at least three more cycles.

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\r\n Drugs used in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) include metformin (off-label use), spironolactone, eflornithine, and oral contraceptives. Oral contraceptives containing a combination of oestrogen and progestin increase sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) levels and thereby reduce the free testosterone level. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels are also suppressed. This restores cyclic exposure of the endometrium to estrogen-progestin, with the resumption of menstrual periods and decreased hirsutism. However, the use of oral contraceptives may be associated with an increased risk of thrombosis and metabolic abnormalities.

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\r\n Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) is a common hormonal disorder among women of reproductive age. It is a condition where hormonal imbalance affects the follicular growth during the ovarian cycle, causing the affected follicles to remain in the ovary.

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\r\n Ayurveda classifies PCOS as a kapha disorder. Kapha having first affected the digestive fire – jatharaagni starts to affect the metabolic aspect of the seven tissues called dhatu agni. Each dhatu agni is responsible for the nourishment and formation of that particular tissue that it resides in.

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\r\n Ayurvedic for Polycystic ovarian syndrome diet focuses on developing healthy Aartava (Female reproductive tissue-one of the dhatu).  A diet for patients with PCOS includes fresh fruits and vegetables. Also are recommend fresh fruits such as peaches, pears, plums as well as dried fruits such as dates, figs and raisins

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\r\n Poly cystic ovarian syndrome can result in infertility issuesIt can also be treated naturally through diet and herbal remedies.

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\r\n Infertility is a term used to describe the inability of a woman or man to conceive a child or the inability of a woman to carry a pregnancy to term.

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\r\n Ovulation is the result of a maturation process which occurs in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis and is orchestrated by a neuroendocrine cascade terminating in the ovaries. Any alteration results in a failure to release a mature ovum, leading to anovulatory cycles. Anovulation may manifest in a variety of clinical presentations, from luteal insufficiency to oligomenorrhea.

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\r\n Anovulation is a not a disease but a sign, much in the same way as that of the which polycystic ovaries manifestation which is part of a much larger disease process.

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\r\n Preeclampsia is a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and signs of damage to another organ system, often the kidneys. Preeclampsia usually begins after 20 weeks of pregnancy in a woman whose blood pressure had been normal. Even a slight rise in blood pressure may be a sign of preeclampsia.

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\r\n Diagnosing PCOS in adolescents require a unique set of criteria for which no single marker currently exists. Adolescents at high risk of developing the syndrome are prone to congenital virilization, low birth weight, premature pubarche, central precocious puberty, large for gestational age girls born to overweight mothers, obesity syndromesinsulin-resistant features, and girls born to mothers with PCOS, central obesity, or diabetes in whom PCOS ought to be suspected when associated with irregular menses.

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\r\n Neurologic and psychiatric disorders occur commonly in adolescents. Conditions such as epilepsy, migraines, and bipolar disorders which typical disorders that require chronic medication to treat symptoms and prevent recurrence of episodes.

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\r\n Pelvic laparoscopy is called a minimally invasive procedure because only small incisions are made. Smaller incisions often allow patients to experience a shorter recovery period, less blood loss, and lower levels of post-surgical pain than in open surgery.

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\r\n Ultrasound tests use high-frequency sound waves to allow doctors to see your internal organs. The sound waves bounce off the organs, creating images of their structures. A transvaginal ultrasound is a kind of pelvic ultrasound that is used to see reproductive organs like the uterus, ovaries, cervix, and vagina.

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\r\n The endometrial biopsy is a medical procedure which involves taking a tissue sample from the lining of the uterus. The tissue subsequently undergoes a histologic evaluation which aids the physician in formulating a diagnosis.

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\r\n Polycystic ovary syndrome cannot be prevented. But early diagnosis and treatment helps prevent long-term complications, such as infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most common manifestation of hormonal dysfunction in reproductive-age women today. PCOS is a heterogeneous condition, both clinically and biochemically. The prevalence of PCOS is reported to be anywhere between 4% and 12%, with mild racial variations.  

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\r\n The menstrual irregularity of PCOS typically manifests in the peripubertal period, although some women may apparently have regular cycles at first and subsequently develop menstrual irregularity in association with weight gain. Menstrual irregularities include mild or severe oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea. Anovulation is very common in the presence of mild oligomenorrhea, and also when normal cycles are present.

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\r\n Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue and/or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue. Weight loss can either occur unintentionally due to malnourishment or an underlying disease or arise from a conscious effort to improve an actual or perceived overweight or obese state.

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\r\n Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, often shortened to PCOS is a condition which affects approximately 10-15% of women within reproductive age. PCOS affect the ovaries, the organs in a woman’s body which produce eggs, and typically means that there are a number of minute cysts around the edge of the ovaries, hence the term polycystic. It is also characterised by excess production of androgens (male-type hormones such as testosterone).

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\r\n Potential areas of further research activity include the analysis of predisposing conditions that increase the risk of PCOS, particularly genetic background and environmental factors, such as endocrine disruptors and lifestyle. The concept that androgen excess may contribute to insulin resistance needs to be re-examined from a developmental perspective, since animal studies have supported the hypothesis that early exposure to modest androgen excess is associated with insulin resistance.

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\r\n Defining alterations of steroidogenesis in PCOS should quantify ovarian, adrenal and extraglandular contributions, as well as clearly defined blood reference levels by some universal standard. Intraovarian regulation of follicle development and mechanisms of follicle arrest should be further elucidated.

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\r\n The PCOS diagnoses are generally made through clinical signs and symptoms. The doctor will want to exclude other illnesses that have similar features, such as low thyroid hormone levels in blood or elevated levels of a milk-producing hormone .Also, tumors of the ovary or adrenal glands can produce elevated male hormone levels in blood that cause acne or excess hair growth, mimicking symptoms of PCOS.

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\r\n The cysts (fluid filled sacs) in the ovaries can be identified by imaging technology. Ultrasound imaging employs no injected dyes or radiation and is safe for all patients including pregnant women. It can also detect cysts in the kidneys of a foetus.

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